As you can see, this lens was simply not a good candidate to shoot against the sun – it made the whole picture look blurry, with virtually no visible details of the trees in the shot. One cause was the lack of multi-coating technologies and another was micro dust that accumulated inside the lens over the years causing additional reflections.
In contrast to Veiling Flare, which blurs images with very little contrast, Ghosting Flare or Ghosting represents all the artifacts visible in the image, whether reflections from the bright source or shapes very similar to the lens diaphragm. These spheres of different colors and shapes usually appear in a direct line from the light source and can span the entire image with dozens of different artifacts.
In addition to the visible flickering of the veil in the images, you can also see different circular artefacts/spheres in each image – these are called “ghosts”. The total number of these ghosts depends on how many elements are in each lens. The more elements, the more ghosts appear in the images. Since 70-200 mm zoom lenses have a more complex design with a dozen or more elements, you can see that pretty much every lens suffers from obfuscation and ghosting, with Nikon 70-200 mm lenses leading the game with a minimum of ghosting.
In addition, as I mentioned above, the aperture can cause internal reflections when a lens is turned off. The effect is enhanced when the lens is reduced to its minimum aperture, so the aperture ghosting is usually not visible at large apertures like f/1.4, but quite noticeable at something like f/16. So if you see polygonal ghostings in your shots, you just know they come from the lens diaphragm.
Sensor / Red dot Flare.
The “red dot flare” is the torch that is created by the impact of light between the image sensor and the lens elements, but you could also call it “sensor flare”. Unlike lens reflection, red dot reflection is not only light reflected from the lens elements and aperture, but also light reflected from the image sensor to the lens and then back to the image sensor. Unfortunately, the newer mirrorless cameras with short flat distances seem to be particularly susceptible to this problem. This is how the red dot / sensor flare looks like in the images: