Important terms from the field of 3D texturing that you should be familiar with:
In order to create surfaces that are as realistic as possible, you should be more familiar with texture mapping. In 3D mapping, graphics are added to a polygon object. These graphics can basically be anything from photographs to original designs. With textures you can make your objects look worn and used. On this basis you can achieve a higher degree of realism in your work.
A shader describes all the material on an object, how the light is reflected and absorbed, and bump maps, which you will learn about later in this article. In practice, shaders and textures are often confused. However, a texture is something that is associated with a shader to give the 3D object a special look.
A 3D object has many sides and a computer is not able to correctly apply a 2D texture to a 3D object. A UV map is basically the 3D model that is stretched out into a flat 2D image. Each surface on a polygon object is connected to a surface on the UV map. Placing a 2D texture on this new 2D representation of your 3D object is now much easier.
Specularity defines how a surface reflects light. Basically it is the reflection of the light source by the texture and creates a shiny look. The right specularity is important to define the material of the 3D object. Glossy metal, for example, has a high reflectivity, while a flat texture such as cement has none.
A normal is an invisible line that points directly out of a polygonal surface a NURBS patch. These standards help the 3D application to determine which side of a surface is the front and which is the back. The correct orientation of the standards is of great importance, especially when rendering, since a render engine cannot represent a backward oriented standard in most cases.